Bhopal

Bhopal

Bhopal भोपाल
—  capital and metropolitian area  —
From top to bottom : The infamous Union Carbide Plant; Bharat Bhawan, the world-renowned centre for multidisciplinary arts; Taj-ul-Masajid, one of the largest mosques in Asia.
Bhopal भोपाल
Location of Bhopal भोपाल
in Madhya Pradesh and India
Coordinates 23°15′N 77°25′E / 23.25°N 77.42°E / 23.25; 77.42Coordinates: 23°15′N 77°25′E / 23.25°N 77.42°E / 23.25; 77.42
Country India
State Madhya Pradesh
District(s) Bhopal
Municipal Commissioner Manish Singh
Mayor Krishna Gaur
Population

Density

2,958,416 (2001)

5,397 /km2 (13,978 /sq mi)

Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Area

Elevation

548.21 km2 (212 sq mi)

427 metres (1,401 ft)

Bhopal (Hindi: भोपाल), pronounced [bʱoːpaːl] ( listen); is the capital of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and the administrative headquarters of Bhopal District and Bhopal Division. The city was the capital of the former Bhopal State. Bhopal is also known as the (or ) for its various natural as well as artificial lakes and is one of the greenest cities in India.

The city attracted international attention after the Bhopal disaster, when a Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide manufacturing plant leaked a mixture of deadly gases including methyl isocyanate on the night of 2/3 December 1984, leading to one of the worst industrial disasters in history and a loss of thousands of lives. Many more were rendered sick and have been facing chronic health problems such as psychological and neurological disabilities, blindness, skin, vision and breathing disorders and the children, whose parents or even grandparents (i.e. second generation) were exposed to the gas, still suffer from serious birth defects. The soil and ground water near the factory site, has been contaminated by the toxic wastes and other chemicals still leaking from the factory. The Indian government, however, maintains that no such pollution has taken place or that any such toxins are even present at the site. Since then, Bhopal has been a center of protests and campaigns which have been joined by millions from across the globe.

A B-1 class city, Bhopal is an important economic, industrial, educational and political center of the State as well as Central India and houses various institutions and installations of state as well as some of national importance. Some of these include ISRO's Master Control Facility, the CSIR Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute (AMPRI), Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER Bhopal), School of Planning and Architecture, Bhopal, Indian Institute of Forest Management and the proposed All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal. As an urban agglomeration Bhopal is the second largest city of Madhya Pradesh after Indore.

Contents

History

Located at 28 km from Bhopal, the Bhojeshwar Temple at Bhojpur was built by the king Bhoj about a millennium ago.
Coat of arms of the Bhopal state.
Hajji Nawab Hafiz Muhammad Hamidullah Khan, the last ruling Nawab of Bhopal.

Bhopal is said to have been founded by the king Bhoja of the Paramara dynasty (1000–1055 A.D.), who ruled from his capital at Dhar. According to this theory, Bhopal was originally known as Bhojpal after the king and the dam ("") constructed by him. Another theory says that the original name of the city was Bhupal. During the British Raj, the railway tickets printed in the city and the signboards on the railway station mentioned the name of the city as "Bhupal" in Hindi-Urdu and "Bhopal" in English.

An Afghan soldier of the Orakzai tribe called Dost Mohammad Khan (not to be confused with the later Afghan King carrying the same name) laid out the present city at the same site following the death of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707. He brought with himself the Islamic influence on the culture and architecture of Bhopal, the ruins of which can be found at Islanagar near Bhopal.

Nawab Faiz Muhammed Khan (1742-1777) moved the capital from Islamnagar to Bhopal. Bhopal was the second largest Muslim state in pre-independence India. Between 1819 and 1926, it was ruled by four women – Begums – unique in the royalty of those days. Qudsia Begum was the first woman ruler, who was succeeded by her only daughter Sikandar Begum, who in turn was succeeded by her only daughter, Shahjehan Begum. Sultan Jahan Begum was the last women ruler, who after 25 years of rule, abdicated in favour of her son, Hamidullah Khan. The rule of Begums gave the city its waterworks, railways, a postal system and a municipality constituted in 1907.

Bhopal was one of the last princely states to sign the 'Instrument of Accession' 1947. Though India achieved Independence in August 1947, the ruler of Bhopal acceded to India only on 1 May 1949. Sindhi refugees from Pakistan were accommodated in West Bhopal Cities, Bairagarh Sub-Area (Sant Hirdaram nagar), a western suburb of Bhopal. According to the States Reorganization Act of 1956, Bhopal state was integrated into the state of Madhya Pradesh, and Bhopal was declared as its capital. The population of the city rose rapidly thereafter.

Bhopal disaster

The Infamous Union Carbide plant.
Protest Rally Against DOW, Bhopal. Union Carbide is now a subsidiary of DOW Chemicals)

On December 3, 1984, a Union Carbide Corporation pesticide plant in Bhopal leaked around 32 tons of toxic gases, including methyl isocyanate gas which led to the worst industrial disaster to date. The official death toll was initially recorded around 5,000. Many figures suggest that 18,000 died within two weeks, and it is estimated that around 8,000 have died since then of gas-poisoning-related diseases. The Greenpeace organization cites a total casualty figure of 20,000 as its own conservative estimate. The Bhopal disaster is often cited as the world's worst industrial disaster. December 3 is annually observed as the official day of mourning, and every year, all government offices in Bhopal remain closed on this day.

The Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) plant was established in 1969 in the Eastern part of the City. Fifty-one per cent of it was owned by Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) and 49% by Indian authorities, although UCC was responsible for the technique and design. It manufactured carbaryl pesticide (trade mark Sevin). Methyl isocyanate (MIC), an intermediate in carbaryl manufacture, was also used, and in 1979 a plant for producing MIC was added to the site.

On the night of December 3, 1984, large amounts of water entered the chemical storage tank E610, which contained about 40 tonnes of methyl isocyanate. The resulting reaction increased the temperature of the liquid inside the tank to 200 °C (400 °F). As a result, a large volume of mixed toxic gases leaked from the MIC containing tank, forcing the emergency release of pressure. Consequently there was massive panic among common people as they woke up in a cloud of noxious gases that burned their lungs. About nine thousand people died immediately, and many more were trampled under others who were fleeing.

The memorial for Bhopal Gas Disaster, situated near the site of Union Carbide Factory. The slogans on the wall read "Hang Anderson" in Hindi and "Bhopal Disaster 1984 to ? The suffering continues So does the struggle [....]"

Theories for how the water entered the chemical storage tank differ. At that time, workers at the plant were cleaning out some chemical pipes with water, and some authorities claim that because of bad maintenance and leaking valves, it was possible for the water to leak into the tank E610. The Union Carbide Corp. maintains that this was not possible, and that the disaster was an act of sabotage by a "disgruntled worker" who introduced water directly into the tank. Much speculation arose in the aftermath, since the government of India and the Union Carbide Corp. did not release the results of their own investigations. A recently published highly researched book, entitled "The Black Box of Bhopal", which has also appended several original documents not scrutinized before, presents a more complete picture about the events on the morning of 3 December 1984, the various investigations and the litigation that followed. It discredits the unproven allegations of the government sponsored CSIR Report of 1985.

The deciding factors that contributed to the disaster included:

  • The chemical plant's poorly chosen location—located near a densely populated west city area, instead of the other side of Bhopal City where the company had been offered land.
  • Using hazardous ingredient chemicals (methyl isocyanate) instead of less dangerous ones
  • Storing these chemicals in large tanks instead of several smaller storage tanks.
  • Possible corrosion of the metals in the pipelines
  • Poor maintenance at the chemical plant
  • Failure of several safety systems, which were not in operation at the time.
  • Deficient staffing policies, such as in the number of employees hired and their training for working with dangerous chemicals.
  • Negligence on the part of the Union Carbide India, Ltd., and the Governments of India and the state of Madhya Pradesh..

Geography

Upper Lake and Takia Tapu seen from Winds and Waves restaurant near Upper Lake,Bhopal.

Bhopal has an average elevation of 427 metres (1401 ft). Bhopal is located in the central part of India, and is just north of the upper limit of the Vindhya mountain ranges. Located on the Malwa plateau, it is higher than the north Indian plains and the land rises towards the Vindhya Range to the south. The city has uneven elevation and has small hills within its boundaries. The major hills in Bhopal comprise of Idgah hills and Shyamala hills in the northern region and Arera hills in the central region.

The municipality covers 298 square kilometres. It has two very beautiful big lakes, collectively known as the Bhoj Wetland . These lakes are the Upper Lake (built by King Bhoj) and the Lower Lake. Locally these are known as the Bada Talab and Chota Talab respectively. The catchment area of the Upper Lake is 360 km² while that of the Lower Lake is 9.6 km². The Upper Lake drains into the Kolar River. The Van Vihar National Park is a national park situated besides the Upper Lake.

A leopard in Van Vihar, Bhopal

Climate

Bhopal
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
13
 
25
10
 
 
7.8
 
29
12
 
 
7.2
 
34
17
 
 
4.5
 
38
22
 
 
8
 
41
26
 
 
114
 
37
25
 
 
356
 
31
23
 
 
388
 
29
22
 
 
196
 
31
21
 
 
26
 
32
18
 
 
14
 
29
14
 
 
12
 
26
11
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Imperial conversion
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
0.5
 
78
50
 
 
0.3
 
83
54
 
 
0.3
 
92
63
 
 
0.2
 
101
71
 
 
0.3
 
105
78
 
 
4.5
 
99
78
 
 
14
 
87
74
 
 
15
 
84
72
 
 
7.7
 
87
71
 
 
1
 
90
65
 
 
0.5
 
84
57
 
 
0.5
 
79
52
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

Bhopal has a humid subtropical climate, with mild, dry winters, a hot summer and a humid monsoon season. Summers start in late March and go on till mid-June, the average temperature being around 30 °C (86 °F), with the peak of summer in May, when the highs regularly exceed 40 °C (104 °F). The monsoon starts in late June and ends in late September. These months see about 40 inches (1020 mm) of precipitation, frequent thunderstorms and flooding. The average temperature is around 25 °C (77 °F) and the humidity is quite high. Temperatures rise again up to late October when winter starts, which lasts up to early March. Winters in Bhopal are mild, sunny and dry, with average temperatures around 18 °C (64 °F) and little or no rain. The winter peaks in January when temperatures may drop close to freezing on some nights. On 6 January 2011, the lowest temperature was 2 °C lower than in Shimla. Total annual rainfall is about 1146 mm (46 inches).

Economy

The city is divided into six major areas and about 75 suburbs. The major areas include Old City and the New City.

Industries

Bhopal has its own industrial area i.e. "Govindpura, Bhopal". It has 1044 small and medium scale industries involved in various kinds of production activities.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India, has a unit in Bhopal. It occupies a large area in the Eastern Part of the city and maintains a suburb named after it. A majority of the residents of the BHEL Suburb are employed by the unit.

Commercial areas and services

Bhopal's major commercial area is M.P. Nagar or Maharana Pratap Nagar which accommodates many business houses, hardware and software stores, banks, media and press houses, showrooms, retail stores, coaching centres as well as hotels, restaurants, eateries, shopping centers, malls (DB City Mall, Aashima and C21 mall on hoshangabad road, Aura mall in arera colony) and movie halls (Fun Cinemas, Cinepolis, PVR). Other large commercial centres, markets and shopping areas include markets in the Old City, New Market, Bittan Market, etc.

Bairagarh, the North-Western suburb of Bhopal, which was earlier a camp for Sindhi refugees from Pakistan, has developed into market for textiles.

Being a state capital, the New City has a majority of residents working for the State and Central Government Departments. There are two major office complexes on Arera Hills named Satpura and Vindhyachal, which house a number of State Government offices and projects. Adjacent to them is the State Secretariat, Vallabh Bhavan. In their vicinity are other State and Central Government offices which include major national banks and insurance companies.

Bhopal has a cantonment in the old city as well as military presence near Bairagarh and the airport. The cantonment houses one of the Services Selection board centers that recruits troops and officers for the armed forces. Also BestPrice modern store of Bhrati Walmart has opened on Karond road near Peoples Multiplex mall.

Economy of the Old City

The major industries in the old city are electrical goods, cotton, chemicals and jewelry. Other industries include cotton and flour milling, cloth weaving and painting, as well as making matches, sealing wax, and sporting equipment. The residents of Bhopal also engage in large retail businesses. Handicrafts, like zardozi and (a small string purse, usually used with Indian traditional dresses) are some of the products of the Old City. In addition, there are also a large number of garages in the Old City which specialise in automobile conversion. These garages produce custom-modified and tuned cars, SUVs and motorbikes.

Conglomerates

Bhopal is also home to the DB Corp, informally called the Bhaskar Group (after its major publication ), a Rs. 1700 crore (Rs. 17 billion) business conglomerate with strong presence in newspapers, television, entertainment, printing, textiles, fast moving consumer goods, oils, solvents and internet services. Its head office is located in Maharana Pratap Nagar. Manjul Publishing House, located in the old city, is a major publishing house made famous by the translation of the Harry Potter series of novels into Hindi.

IT Park

The Madhya Pradesh State Electronics Development Corporation Ltd. is going to develop a software and hardware technology park in Bhopal. Multinational companies like Genpact, Fujitsu, TCS and Taurus Microsystems are expected to open their centers in the Technology Park.

Education and health care

Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology

There are more than 550 state government sponsored schools and affiliated to the Madhya Pradesh Board of Secondary Education (MPBSE) located within the city limits. In addition, there are four Kendriya Vidyalayas in the city affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). The city is also served by numerous other private schools affiliated to either CBSE or MPBSE. Some schools are also affiliated to National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) and ICSE Board. Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, established in 1960 is the premier institute for technology in the city and has been categorized by the Government of India as an Institute of National Importance. There are several other public and private engineering schools (numbering almost 90) located in and around the city. Government of India established an Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) and a School of Planning and Architecture (SPA) in the year 2008.

The prominent management and law institutes include the Indian Institute of Forest Management, the National Judicial Academy (for training judges) and the National Law Institute University, one of the premier law schools in India.

National Law Institute University

Gandhi Medical College is the city's oldest and most prominent medical college and is associated with Hamidia Hospital. The medical college is affiliated to the Barkatullah University. The hospital and the college played a crucial role in emergency response and care after the Bhopal Disaster. other medical institutes include Peoples Medical College & Lakshmi Narain Medical College(LNMC). Barkatullah University gives affiliation to renowned colleges like Bhopal School of Social Sciences, Institute for Excellence in Higher Education (IEHE), Rajiv Gandhi College, Etc.

Other institutes of higher learning that offer courses in pure sciences, liberal arts, accounting, communication and other professional training include the Rajiv Gandhi Technical University, the Barkatullah University, the Madhya Pradesh Bhoj Open University (for distance education), the Sikkim Manipal University of Distance Education and the Makhanlal Chaturvedi National University of Journalism and SNGGPG college.

Other city institutes of learning that offer a diploma in education are the Regional Institute of Education (RIE) of Bhopal, a constituent unit of the National Council of Educational Research & Training (NCERT) and the Digdarshika Institute of Rehabilitation and Research, a non-profit and educational organization serving the health sector.

Government and politics

Vidhan Bhawan, which houses the Madhya Pradesh Vidhan Sabha.

Bhopal is the capital city of Madhya Pradesh. It houses the State Legislative Assembly, or the , which seats 230 members of Legislative Assembly. The twelfth (and current) Vidhan Sabha was elected in May, 2008. Currently, the party in the majority in Vidhan Sabha is Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) which is led by Shivraj Singh Chauhan. Bhopal district elects seven seats to the Assembly.

One of the major institute over here is the oriental institute of science and technology where yearly a bollywood picture is made and stars such as amitabh bachan , prakash jha , deepika padukone , saif ali khan and lot more visit this uninversity frequantly. This uninversity s appreciated by many stars. The administration of Bhopal city is handled by Bhopal Municipal Corporation, also known as BMC. The total area under BMC is 285 km². The city is divided into 66 wards. Each ward elects a corporator. The winning party elects a council of members, who are responsible for various departments. The council members chose the Mayor among themselves. At present, there are ten members in the council. The Commissioner of Bhopal is the highest officer of Municipal Corporate Office, which is responsible for the departments of public works, revenue and tax, water supply, planning and development, fire brigade, health and sanitation, finance and accounts etc. The current Municipal Commissioner of Bhopal is Manish Singh, while the current Mayor is Krishna Gaur.

Transportation

Local Transport

Link Road 1, a long, tree-lined boulevard connecting MP Nagar and TT Nagar, two important business centers of Bhopal.
Radio Taxis.

Bhopal has been a railroad and highway transportation hub for a long time. Bhopal has its own city bus service: Bhopal City Link Limited, which operates larger Star Buses, which are under GPS navigation and smaller Metro Buses. In addition, around 600 mini-buses are run by private operators. Metro or Radio Taxis and auto-rickshaws are another major means of transport. In some parts in the old as well as new city, the new Tata Magic Vans are running successfully and have replaced the older and bigger diesel rickshaws — known as "Bhat" in year 2010.

Bhopal is also implementing a "Bus Rapid Transit System", projected to become functional from the year 2011.

Roadways

Apart from the long distance services, there are many services to nearby places within the state. The bus services are operated from 8 major bus stands in the city:

  • ISBT Terminal, Near Chetak Bridge (inaugurated in 2010)
  • Naadra Bus Stand, Old City
  • Jawahar Chowk Stand
  • Halalpura Bus Stand
  • Bharat Talkies Stand
  • Jyaneshwari Bus Stand, South
  • Piplani Bus Stand, East
  • Ayodhya Nagar Bus Stand

National Highway 12 passes through Bhopal which connects it to Jabalpur in the East and Jaipur in the West. National Highway 86 connects Bhopal to Sagar in the East to Dewas in the West. State Highway 17 connects the city with Indore. There are number of daily buses to Indore, Ujjain, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Khajuraho, Sanchi, Pachmarhi, Vidisha, and as well to Ahmedabad, Jodhpur, Kota, Nagpur, Jaipur, Agra, and Allahabad. An interstate bus terminus is near the Habibganj station.

Metro Train

On April 21, 2010, a panel was set up for Bhopal Metro Rail. The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) will carry out a survey to explore the possibility of running metro rail service in the city and will give a feasibility report soon to Madhya Pradesh Urban Administration Department (MPUAD). The DMRC will complete the survey in six months for which it has received an amount of Rs 50 lakhs.

Railways

Bhopal railway station
Habibganj railway station

Bhopal lies in the West Central Railway Zone. Considering both North-South and East-West train routes, it is one of the best connected city in India. Following are the railway stations in Bhopal:

  • Bhopal Junction Railway Station is the largest and most important railway station in the city. Being on the main North-South line, it is connected by rail to all parts of the country except North-Eastern states. More than 150 daily trains have stoppages in Bhopal.
  • Habibganj Railway Station is a major and the most developed station of Bhopal. It holds the distinction of being the first ISO 9000:2001 certified railway station in India.
  • Misrod Railway Station is located in the Misrod suburb of the city.
  • Mandideep Railway Station is located in the industrial town of Mandideep.
  • Sukhsewanagar
  • Bairagarh is located in the north-western Bairagarh suburb.
  • Nishatpura railway station

Airport

The Raja Bhoj Airport is located near the satellite suburb Bairagarh and has flights to most major cities in India. Expansion of the airport is completed and now became a n international airport.

There are three routes ways to reach the airport: (1) Via Bairagarh, (2) Via Panchvati, (3) Via Gandhi nagar road (N.H 12)

Demographics

According to the 2001 census the total Bhopal population is about 1,458,416. The population of Bhopal district is however much more and stands at 1,836,724. It has nearly 75% Hindus and 20% Muslims, while 2-5% include Christian, Jains, Buddhists, Dawoodi bohra. In the old city the population is predominantly Muslim. The Old City of Bhopal is a predominantly conservative but New Bhopal is a demographically cosmopolitan area.

The chief languages are Hindi/Urdu (Hindustani) and English, but there are a substantial number of Marathi, Sindhi, Marwari speakers as well. In the princely state of Bhopal, Persian was the court language until nineteenth century. The common street language spoken in Bhopal, especially in older regions of the city is termed as Bhopali and is the subject of comedy in Bollywood movies. An example of the language is used by actor Jagdeep in the film and Arshad Warsi in the film .

  • Population: 1.46 million
  • Total waste generation: 6 ton/day
  • Waste generation per capita: 0.43 kg/person per day

Mosques and Temples

Birla Temple or Birla Mandir, a big, Hindu temple located at Arera Hills, Bhopal.

Lakshmi Narayan Temple situated to the south of Lower Lake, is a temple devoted to Vishnu and his mythological consort Laxmi constructed by Birla, called Birla Temple.

Kalighat Bhopal, the beautiful Lower Lake side is the temple of Dakshin Kali, was founded by Shri Shiv Narayan Singh Bagwar with the blessings of Goddess Kali on Shrawan Shukl Ekadashi V.S.2024 - 3 September 1968. Bagwar is the Founder Chairman of Shree Kalika Mandir Dharmarth Nyas, Kalighat, Bhopal registered on 7 October 1976. The temple has become a place where the wishes of everyone is fulfilled. All religious communities across the Country are visiting temple and making their life happier by the blessings of Goddess Maa Kalika. It has been a center point amongst devotees of Sakti and has emerged as Kalika Shakti Peeth, over a period of time. A religious place of great significance for devotees across all segments, all over the country and abroad, by prolong dedicated services of Shree Shree 1008 Shree Kalikacharya, Shree Kalika Peethadheesh, Shree Shiv Narayan Singh Bagwar, Anantananda Maharaj.

Gufa Mandir Gufa Mandir is situated seven kilometres away from Bhopal, Lalghati - Narsingh Road. Sant Narayan Dasji Maharaj established a Shiv Temple in the Cave, hence, called as Gufa Mandir. Lateron, developed the forest area as Sanskrit Vidhyalaya and Hanuman Temple etc.,.

Manua Bhan Ki Tekri. An annual fair is held on Kartik Purnima at (Mahavir Giri), a Jain pilgrimage center located around seven kilometres away from Bhopal.

Taj-ul-Masajid, one of the largest mosques in Asia.

Bhopal has many mosques including Taj-ul-Masajid (one of the largest mosques in Asia), Dhai Seedi ki Masjid (one of the smallest mosques in Asia), Jama Masjid (built by Qudsia Begum in 1837). A three-day Iztima-Muslim dhaarmik sammelan or Muslim religious assembly (religious congregation) used to be held in the precincts of the Taj-ul-Masjid annually. It draws scores at Muslim pilgrims from all parts of India. It has now been shifted outside the city limits. Moti Masjid (built by Sikander Begum in 1860).

Some of the major historical buildings in Bhopal include Shaukat Mahal (a mixture of Indo-Islamic and European styles of architecture), Gohar Mahal (built by Qudsia Begum, fusion of Hindu and Mughal architecture), Sadar Manzil (used by the Begums for public audience, now used as the head office of the Municipal Corporation) and Purana Qila (part of the 300-year-old fort of Queen Kamalapati, situated in Kamla Park, which separates Upper Lake from Lower lake).

Culture

Shairis and poetry recitals are popular in Bhopal. Bhopal is famous for its culture of and . is a curtain, which was used to veil the women of the house from outsiders, is a kind of tobacco product which is quite famous with Bhopalis. The official language of Bhopal City is Hindi, and Hindi-Urdu with a peculiar Bhopali accent is spoken in western and eastern parts of the city.

Bhopal has an extensive culture of eating. (Beetle leaf) is a preparation with a betel leaf topped with variety of seasonings, the most common being and (nut). Bhopalites treat preparation as a science and an art, which is perfected among the streets of Bhopal, a tradition passed down generations. The paans in Bhopal are wide in variety and innovations.

Bhopali dishes and food in Bhopal are comparatively mild, less spicy and unique in taste . Local and individual variations of various popular snacks and foods can be found selling around the city . Bhopali food has a large variety of non-vegetarian dishes, including Bhopali Murgh Rezala, Paneer Rezala, Bhopali Gosht Korma, Murgh Hara Masala Rice, Murgh Nizami etc.

Diwali is celebrated with equal pomp and glory as Eid[]. Gifts and sweets are exchanged and donation are made to the poor. Diwali is celebrated by worshiping the wealth goddess . Later that night, firecrackers are burst in the open by young and old. Eid is special to the city as all the Hindus take time out to visit their Muslim friends and greet them and get treated with delicacies, the specialty of the day being sweet . Bhopali culture is such that both Hindus and Muslims visit each other on their respective festivals to greet and exchange sweets. During Ganesh puja and Durga Puja (Navratras), idols of Ganesh and Durga are established in throughout the city. People throng to offer prayers to their deities. At the end of Navratras, on the day of Vijayadashami (or ), huge effigies of Ravan are burnt in different parts of the city. Some of them are organized by the local administration and stand as tall as 60 feet (18 m).

Bharat Bhawan, a big center for theatre, music, arts and other cultural activities.

Bharat Bhavan is the main cultural centre of the city and of the most important cultural centers of India. It has an art gallery, an open-air amphitheatre facing the Upper Lake, two other theatres and a tribal museum.

Parol: Himalayan Village gate reconstruted as entrance gate at IGRMS, Bhopal

The Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya (IGRMS), an autonomous organization of Govt. of India, Ministry of Culture is dedicated to the depiction of story of mankind in time and space. The Sangrahalaya is involved in generating a new museum movement in India, with open, freewheeling, flexible plan, to demonstrate the simultaneous validity of human cultures and the pluriality of alternatives for human articulation. The innovative aspects of the Organisation are its open air and indoor exhibitions, built with active involvement of traditional artisans and experts drawn from different community groups, and the Education, Outreach and Salvage activities for revitalisatin of vanishing but valuable cultural traditions. The headquarters of the IGRMS is located in Bhopal (M.P.) while a regional centre is functioning from Heritage building Wellington House, Mysore (Karnataka). It showcases the tribal culture of various regions and various examples of tribal art and architecture. Every year in January/February, it hosts potters' workshops, folk music and dance events and open-air plays. Tribals also demonstrate their skills in painting, weaving, and the fashioning of bell metal into works of art.

Mandideep is an industrial suburb of Bhopal. It is located to the South of the city on the NH 12. Mandideep's total exports are worth some 2,300 crore rupees ($500m; £300m) per year, making it the largest industrial area in Madhya Pradesh. The town is home to Hindustan Electo Graphite (HEG), owning the largest graphite electrode plant in the world and is the largest industrial company in the entire state. Hindustan Electro Graphite (HEG) and Lupin Laboratories ltd. are the dominant companies in the suburb, each exports worth around 900 crore rupees. Apart from that, Mandideep also houses the manufacturing plant of Makson group of company, Eicher Tractors for the oldest tractor manufacturers in India.

Popular holiday spots around Bhopal include Delawadi, a picturesque picnic spot and Islamnagar which was the palace of Bhopal's Afghan rulers and was built by Dost Mohammed Khan. Located at around 40 km from Bhopal is Bhimbetka, a World Heritage Site which has one of the largest collections of pre-historic paintings and rocks, some of which date back more than 10,000 years. The Bhojeshwar or Shiva temple in Bhojpur holds great religious importance and is famous for a massive Shivalingam, which is the largest in India. Anglers can head about 10 kilometres from the city to Hathaikheda, which is a popular fishing zone. Sanchi, a site famous for Buddhist monuments and temples dating back several centuries is located at 50& nbsp; km from the city.

The Udaygiri Caves, located near the town of Vidisha, are cut into the side at a sandstone hill, date back from A.D. 320 to 606. An inscription in one of these caves states that it was carved out during the reign of Chandragupta II (A.D. 382–401).

Sports

Cricket is popular in Bhopal. Although it does not have any stadium of international level, cricket at various levels is played at the Baabe Ali stadium and the Bharat Heavy Electrical Ltd. Sports Complex; the latter has even hosted a few matches at the national level. Construction of a Khelgaon is being carried out which will have facilities for hosting international cricket, football and tennis as well as other indoor games. At local level, cricket is played at Old Campion ground. Other tennis ball matches also take place in various parts of the city. MCC ground in 1100 quarters Arera colony is known for quality tennis cricket in the city. The Tatya Tope Stadium, located in the heart of the city, was a cricket stadium and held matches at local and state level. But it has lately been converted into a multi-purpose stadium, with facilities for athletics, football, tennis, squash, table tennis, volleyball, basketball, skating, martial arts and a gymnasium.

A sports city is being constructed on 172 acres (0.70 km2) of land in Satgadhi, near the southern suburb of Kolar, and is expected to get completed by 2013. The project involves construction of an international cricket stadium, a tennis complex and an aquatic complex at par international standards, accompanied by an indoor stadium with facilities for Basketball, Volleyball, Badminton, Gymnastics etc. as well as outdoor sports fields for Netball, Volleyball, etc. Administrative Buildings and hostels for players and coaches will also be constructed. The project also involves the construction of a 5-star hotel and a 9-hole golf course.

Bhopal is also known for its hockey lovers. The Aishbagh Stadium is synonymous for hockey players, and has been renovated heavily. The All India Obaidullah Khan Gold Cup Hockey Tournament was also revived in 2010, and will now be regularly held there. Many players reach different grounds for practice. The city has produced many national and international players for Indian hockey team.

Bhopalites are also fond of bodybuilding. In the old city, there are a number of gyms where youngsters workout everyday to make their body muscular. Slowly, this trend has caught up even in the new city where more modern equipments are being employed to help their members get into better shape. Body builders from the local gyms participate at national level and have tasted success at the state level.

Apart from this, at school and college level, table tennis, volleyball, basketball, football and swimming are also popular sports. Every summer, Sports Authority of India holds camps which provide coaching to students of various ages games and sports of their choices.

Situated at the Upper Lake, the Boat Club offers facilities for various water sports and tourism.

Bhopal is also coming up as a center of adventure sports. Trekking camps are being organised by Youth Hostels and other private clubs and their destinations are Budhni Ghat, Narsingarh, Ratapani Sanctuary, Delawadi, Bhimbetka, Manuabhan Ki Tekri etc. The government has also established India's first National Sailing Club at the Boat Club, in the Upper Lake. This club offers various water sports such as kayaking, canoeing, rafting, water skiing, para-sailing etc. Since its inception, it has hosted Canoeing and Kayaking Championships at national as well as international levels.

The youngest captain of the Indian cricket team, Mansoor Ali Khan Pataudi, was born and brought up in Bhopal.He was also a nawab of bhopal at present time.

One of the renowned hockey players of the city is Aslam Sher Khan, who represented India in several international games and was a part of the World Cup winning team in 1975. He later joined politics and went on to become a Member of Parliament. He also served the national hockey by being a part of the national selection committee. His father, Ahmed Sher Khan, represented India at the Berlin Olympics in 1936 along with Major Dhyan Chand.

Another famous sportsperson of Bhopal is (Late) J P Narayanan. A graduate Mechanical Engineer from [{Maulana Azad National Collage of Technology(MANIT)]], Narayanan had to his credit broadcasting running commentaries in English for 100 One-Day Internationals and 44 Test matches in his career as a cricket commentator for All India Radio (AIR). The third One-Day International match between India and Pakistan played at Keenan Stadium, Jamshedpur on April 9, 2005 was his last assignment as a cricket commentator. An employee of Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, the BHEL sports complex was renamed to JP Narayanan Sports Complex, in an effort to honor his contribution to cricket in Bhopal and nationally as well.

Media

Electronic Media

Presently there are 7 Radio stations in Bhopal which include Akashwani 102.4, AIR FM Gold 103.6, Vividh Bharti 103.5, BIG FM 92.7, My FM 94.3, Radio Mirchi 98.3 and Red FM 93.5.

Bhopal has its own Radio and Television stations (All India Radio and Doordarshan respectively). Local Television networks include Digi Networks and BTV(Bhaskar TV). Besides, three regional satellite channels operate from Bhopal, namely ETV Madhya Pradesh & Chhattisgarh, Sahara Madhya Pradesh and Sadhana News.

Print Media

Various Hindi and English newspapers are published from Bhopal. Hindustan Times, The Pioneer (Indian Newspaper), Youth Engine etc. are the main English dailies and weekly published from the city while Dainik Bhaskar, Nava Bharat, Nai Dunia, Dainik Jagran, Patrika, BPN Times, Raj Express peoples samachar etc. are the main Hindi dailies published from here.

Communications

Bhopal is served by all major telecommunications networks in the country and the city is well connected by postal and telegraph lines to rest of the country. Fixed-line, GSM and CDMA services and Broadband and Hi-speed Internet services are provided by various service providers. Fixed-line telephone users are given 7-digit numbers in Bhopal. The STD code for Bhopal is 0755.

Places of interest

A few of the places of interest in Bhopal include

  • Upper Lake : The largest artificial lake in Asia.
  • Lake View : A stretch of road on the shore of the great or Upper Lake. It is a popular joint for people of all age groups, especially young. it will provide huge relief to your body from stress.
  • Kalika Mandir, Kalighat, Lower Lake (Bhopal)

boat club. This is a spot for boating and national level water sporting events are organized by the club.

  • Van Vihar National Park : A zoological park with the status of a national park, it is situated south of the Upper Lake.
  • New Market : A shopping and commercial zone in the city housing a number of eateries, restaurants, cloth shops and showrooms, bakeries, mobile stores etc.
  • Taj-ul-Masajid : It is one of the largest mosque in Asia and is also used as a madrasah
  • Aquarium Building
  • Bharat BhavanA place where many national film festival and plays were organized in past.
  • chatori gali :A wonderful place for all the person who loves non-vegetarian food.
  • Manav sanghralay :a place near upper lake where you find old cultures and traditions.
  • Kerwa Dam : It is a scenic dam located in the outskirts of Bhopal.
  • Lal Parade Ground: The independence day and republic day parade are held in this ground. It is also the venue of large gatherings.
  • Museum of Natural History
  • Manuabhan ki tekri : A Jain temple, situated on a hill cliff, this place is popular for the scenic views it offers of the city below. A rope-way has been installed and people also have the option to reach the spot on foot.
  • Libraries :A number of libraries are operational including the regional library and Swami Vivekanand Library (formerly British Library)
  • Shopping Malls :DB city mall, Ashima Mall, Century21 Mall, Crown Mall, The Great India Palace Mall, Aura Mall.

Notable people

  • Titusji (Freedom Fighter and Gandhian in True aspects 1905–1980). Titusji who was a freedom fighter and close associate of Gandhiji. He took part in the Salt march of 1930. He was among those who were selected by Gandhiji to march with him in this yatra. He was also a close friend of the late Prime Minister Gulzari Lal Nanda. Titusji settled down in Bhopal after India's independence.
  • Iris C. Auer (Member of British Empire), educationist 1904–1998
  • Shankar Dayal Sharma, former President of India and former Professor at the Harvard Law School.
  • Shree Shree 1008 Shree Kalikacharya, Shree Kalika Peethadheesh, Swamy Anantananda Maharaj, Shree Shiv Narayan Singh Bagwar.
  • Jaya Bhaduri (Bachchan), famous actress and wife of actor Amitabh Bachchan.
  • Javed Akhtar, Bollywood song writer and poet.
  • J Swaminathan, eminent artist; closely associated with the founding of Bharat Bhavan.
  • Aslam Sher Khan: Member of the World Cup winning Indian Hockey team in 1975 (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia). Also a former Member of Parliament.
  • Mansur Ali Khan Pataudi (aka Tiger Pataudi), India's youngest captain in Test Cricket. His association with Bhopal is through his mother's family.
  • Shaharyar Khan: Former Pakistani Foreign Secretary. Belongs to the Bhopal Royal family. Is presently the President of Pakistan's Cricket Control Board.
  • Kaif Bhopali, lyricist, poet
  • Raza Murad, Bollywood actor.
  • Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Famous Unani Physician
  • Suresh Pachouri, Member of Parliament (Rajya Sabha)
  • Ajit Jogi, a Politician and first Chief Minister of Chattisgarh.
  • Shivraj Singh Chauhan, CM of Madhya Pradesh.

divyanka tripathi, TV actress

Further reading

  • Sinha, Indra (2007). . Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9781416578789. 
  • Lapierre, Dominique (2002). . Warner Books. ISBN 0743220358. 
  • Khan, Shaharyar. . ISBN 1860645283. 
  • Singh, J.P. (1998). . Mittal Publications, India. ISBN 8170997054. 
  • Howgh, William (2006). . Hesperides Press. ISBN 1406712256. 
  • Mittal, Kamal (1990). . South Asia Books. ISBN 9990309159. 
  • D'Silva, Themistocles (2006). . Trafford Publishing. ISBN 1412084121. 

Gallery

  1. ^ Bhopal Population. Census of India. Retrieved 2 May 2011.
  2. ^ Pilgrimage Centers of India by Brajesh Kumar. Page 104. ISBN 978-81-7182-185-3.
  3. ^ "City of Lakes and City of Mosque.". http://www.southasiabiz.com/2006/10/city_of_lakes_mosques_and_temp.html. Retrieved 2007-04-12. 
  4. ^ Green (2010-01-28). "MSN's 8 green cities of India – 7 – Green News – Article – MSN India". Green.in.msn.com. http://green.in.msn.com/greenliving/article.aspx?cp-documentid=3490719&page=7. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  5. ^ ALTAF QADRI (Dec. 03, 2009). "Victims of Bhopal Mark Anniversary". . http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1945229,00.html. 
  6. ^ Lakhani, Nina (29 November 2009). "Bhopal: The victims are still being born". (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/bhopal-the-victims-are-still-being-born-1830516.html. Retrieved 30 November 2009. 
  7. ^ "Bhopal marks 25 years since gas leak devastation". . 2009-12-03. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8392206.stm. Retrieved 2010-04-26. 
  8. ^ "REFILE-India's 'death factory' leaves toxic legacy 25 years on". . 2009-12-03. http://www.forbes.com/feeds/afx/2009/12/03/afx7179330.html. 
  9. ^ "Subterranean Leak". http://www.downtoearth.org.in/cover.asp?foldername=20091215&filename=news&sid=22&sec_id=9. 
  10. ^ ""Death factory" leaves toxic legacy 25 years on". . http://in.reuters.com/article/topNews/idINIndia-44414420091203?pageNumber=3&virtualBrandChannel=0. []
  11. ^ http://finmin.nic.in/the_ministry/dept_expenditure/miscellaneous/hracca.pdf
  12. ^ "ISRO Master Control Facility". Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. http://web.archive.org/web/20070930153945/http://www.isro.org/newsletters/spaceindia/oct2004jun2005/Chapter2.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-27. 
  13. ^ "Bhopal AIIMS". Archived from the original on 2007-05-26. http://web.archive.org/web/20070526003943/http://www.centralchronicle.com/20060117/1701025.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-20. 
  14. ^ CPI joins campaign against naming Bhopal as Bhojpal. Daily Bhaskar, 16 March 2011.
  15. ^ "Second largest Muslim state". Tour Travel World. ASIN 1860645283. 
  16. ^ "BMC History". 15 May 2007. http://www.bhopalmunicipal.com/history.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-12. 
  17. ^ "1984: Hundreds die in Bhopal chemical accident". . 1984-12-03. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/3/newsid_2698000/2698709.stm. Retrieved 2010-04-26. 
  18. ^ Ingrid Eckerman. (2004) Preview
  19. ^ Green Peace international.Nightmare in Bhopal
  20. ^ "Bhopal – The world's worst industrial disaster". Greenpeace.org. 2003-03-17. http://www.greenpeace.org/international/photosvideos/slideshows/bhopal-the-world-s-worst-ind. Retrieved 2009-09-24. 
  21. ^ ABC 20th anniversary of world's worst industrial disaster. Simi Chakrabarti
  22. ^ "Bhopal industries". http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9079067/Bhopal#84367.hook. Retrieved 2007-04-10. 
  23. ^ "Zari and Batua". http://www.craftandartisans.com/zari-zardozi-tinsel-embroidery.html. Retrieved 2007-04-12. 
  24. ^ [http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20050010198 "Manjul Publishing House Bhopal has also got central india's premier fashion institute iift-Indian Institute of Fashion Technology with its branches in M.P.Nagar and Koh-e-fiza, to cater to the needs of old and new bhopal."]. http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20050010198. Retrieved 2007-04-04. 
  25. ^ "Technology Park in Bhopal". http://www.mpsedc.com/stp_bhopal.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-10. 
  26. ^ "Genpact BPO". Archived from the original on 2008-01-26. http://web.archive.org/web/20080126181119/http://www.bpowatchindia.com/news/news1198.asp. Retrieved 2007-04-11. 
  27. ^ "DIF-PPP:Glossary". Mp.gov.in. http://www.mp.gov.in/difmp/ppp/PPP_ProjSummary.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  28. ^ "Three more IITs, two IISc to come up". Economic Times. 2007-08-18. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/News/News_By_Industry/Services/Education/Three_more_IITs_two_IISc_to_come_up/articleshow/2290923.cms. Retrieved 2009-09-24. 
  29. ^ "Madhya Pradesh Vidhan Sabha". http://mpvidhansabha.nic.in/default.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-08. 
  30. ^ "Bhopal Municipal Corporation". http://www.bhopalmunicipal.com. Retrieved 2007-03-08. 
  31. ^ "BRTS in Bhopal to be completed by Feb 2011, says Gaur". ZeeNews.com. 2010-03-30. http://www.zeenews.com/news615069.html. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  32. ^ "Interstare Bus Terminus". Archived from the original on 2007-05-26. http://web.archive.org/web/20070526003803/http://www.centralchronicle.com/20060110/1001027.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-16. 
  33. ^ "Panel set up for Bhopal Metro Rail | Real Estate News, property news, Property classified, property listing, realty, real estate India". Blog.propertynice.com. 2010-04-21. http://blog.propertynice.com/panel-set-up-for-bhopal-metro-rail/. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  34. ^ "Railway Stations in Bhopal | BHOPAL ONLINE". Bhopalonline.info. http://www.bhopalonline.info/railway_stations. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  35. ^ "Indore, Bhopal to have international connectivity soon". ZeeNews.com. 2008-01-15. http://www.zeenews.com/news418383.html. Retrieved 2011-06-19. 
  36. ^ http://www.mpurban.gov.in/News/frm_NewsVIEW.aspx?newsid=2247
  37. ^ "Taj-ul-Masajid". Tour Travel World. http://www.tourtravelworld.com/hot_spots/bhopal/Taj-ul-Masajid/. Retrieved 2007-03-12. 
  38. ^ "Bhopal Tours". http://www.destinationindiatourism.com/india-tour-destinations/bhopal-tours.html. Retrieved 2007-03-12. 
  39. ^ "Bhopal Paan". Archived from the original on 2006-10-19. http://web.archive.org/web/20061019103013/http://www.indiasurabhi.com/exploreindia/cuisinemain.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-11. 
  40. ^ Posted by niya (2009-01-11). "niya's world: Bhopal's bustling streets and Bhopali Murgh Rezala". Niyasworld.blogspot.com. http://niyasworld.blogspot.com/2009/01/bhopals-bustling-streets-and-bhopali.html. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  41. ^ Madslien, Jorn (2009-12-02). "Industrial success fails to lift Bhopal". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/8388167.stm. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  42. ^ "Cricinfo, BHEL Sports Complex". http://content-www.cricinfo.com/india/content/ground/57957.html. Retrieved 2007-04-03. 
  43. ^ "Cricinfo, Tatya Tope Stadium". http://www.theoldie.co.uk/india/content/ground/57958.html. Retrieved 2007-04-03. 
  44. ^ "Madhya Pradesh's News Portal". Central Chronicle. 2010-05-12. http://www.centralchronicle.com/viewnews.asp?articleID=35315. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  45. ^ "Bhopal Adventure Sports". Archived from the original on 2007-05-26. http://web.archive.org/web/20070526003744/http://www.centralchronicle.com/20061121/2111032.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-08. 
  46. ^ "Water Sports in Bhopal". Archived from the original on 2007-05-26. http://web.archive.org/web/20070526003810/http://www.centralchronicle.com/20060809/0908021.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-08. 
  47. ^ "National Canoeing and Kayaking Championship". http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/showsports.aspx?id=SPOEN20050018409. Retrieved 2007-04-04. 
  48. ^ "Asian Canoeing and Kayaking Championship". http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/showsports.aspx?id=SPOEN20030016656. Retrieved 2007-04-04. 
  49. ^ Matin Khan (1982). "The Autobiography of Aslam Sher Khan". Allied Publishers. http://www.bharatiyahockey.org/granthalaya/hellwithhockey/pre1975/page2.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-08. 


All text on this page is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. (See Terms of Use for details.)